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Data Testing Using SQL

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Database testing is a type of software testing that examines schema, tables, triggers, and other database elements. It is also known as backend testing or data validation. Database testing primarily involves constructing SQL queries to assert and validate various database operations. A fundamental knowledge of SQL is essential for performing database testing. It is a multi-layered process, encompassing the User Interface (UI) layer, the Business layer, and the Data Access layer. When conducting database testing, it is crucial to ensure the database’s efficiency, stability, performance, and security.

Objectives of database testing

  1. Transactional Properties (ACID) – Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability.
  • Atomicity – It means a transaction is either pass or fail. When a single part of transaction fails, it means the complete transaction has failed, it is known as “all-or-nothing” rule.
  • Consistency – A transaction will always result in a valid state of the DB.
  • Isolation – If there are multiple transaction executing all at once, the DB should be the same as if they were to be executed one after the other.
  • Durability – If a transaction is in complete status, then no other external factors should be able to change it.

2. Data Integrity – Ensure when we change or update any data in the database, it gets reflected in the all forms.

3. Accuracy of Business Rules – Complex databases lead to complex components and complex queries. Testers should always use corresponding SQL queries to validate complex objects like triggers, procedures, etc.

4. Data Mapping – In data mapping, check and analyze if all the front end fields are mapped correctly to the equivalent fields in the database table. CRUD operations are implements at the backend:

  • C: Create – if a create operation is performed through user, then ‘Save’ any new transaction .
  • R: Retrieve – if a retrieve operation is performed through user, then ‘Search’ or ‘View’ any saved transaction,
  • U: Update – if an Update operation is performed through user, then ‘Edit’ or ‘Modify’ an existing record.
  • D: Delete – if a delete operation is performed through user, then ‘Remove’ any record from the system.

Database components

  • Database Schema– describes the structure of the database.
  • Transactions– accessing and retrieving data from database.
  • Stored Procedures– it is the group of statements or functions, which controls the transactions in the database.
  • Field constraints – restrict the type of data that can be stored in the field and how the data can interact with other data within the database.
  • Triggers – when a certain event occurs in table, trigger will executed via auto instruction.

Processes involved in database testing

Setup a testing environment– setting up a good testing environment for a good quality of a testing process.

Generate a test scenario– once we set up the testing environment then create the test cases, it include different inputs and transactions.

Execution– it is the crucial face for database testing to execute all of the created test cases.

Analysis– now after executing the test cases, then we have analysis all the output values, which matches with the expected results.

Log defects– This is the last phase in the database testing process. In this step tester must inform the developer about the issues or defects in the database application.

Types of Database Testing

It is mainly classified to 3 types.

1. Structural testing

It include table testing, schema testing, view testing etc. mainly performed by the data administrator who have strong knowledge in SQL concepts. It is further classified into schema/ mapping testingstored procedures and views testingtrigger testingdatabase server check.

2. Functional testing

It is the most important type of database testing, it handles database functional requirements. There are two types in functional testing.

  1. Black Box Testing -testers no need To worried About the Internal Functional and code wise logics. need To verify integrated database system for checking the functionalities. 
  2. White Box testing – testers need to know about the internal structure of the database and must have the Knowledge about the internal functionality and programming codes.

3. Non-Functional Testing

It involves less system requirements to meet the business specifications. There are two types:

  1. Load testing – this is type of performance testing, it determine how your web application will behave during normal and high load conditions.  
  2. Stress Testing– to identify the system breakpoint. This point of failure for a system is called the database system breakpoint. Stress testing Tools are load runner & win runner.


Data base testing is very important process. Which helps to validate the data and checking database functionality. With all these features, factors and processes to test on a database, there is an increasing demand for the testers to be technically proficient in the key database concepts.